Introduction to Examples of isotopes :
Let us discuss about the examples of isotopes. Soddy named these elements of the different mass numbers having same atomic number as isotopes. The iso means same and topos means place that is atoms placed at the same position in the periodic table. The isotopes show same chemical properties but differ in some properties which are dependent on the mass number. Next we see the types of isotopes.
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Types of isotopes – examples of isotopes:
The isotopes are called as the atoms of the similar elements contain the similar atomic number and the similar chemical properties but various only in mass number.
The atomic masses of each isotope of the same element are different because the number of neutrons present in their nucleus is different.
The types of isotopes are declared in two types.
- Radioactive isotopes
- Non-radioactive isotopes
The first type is radioactive isotopes. These isotopes are unstable and impulsively disintegrate and give out alpha, beta and gamma rays.
The second type is non-radioactive isotopes. This type of isotopes is stable.
Examples of isotopes:
- The first examples are three isotopes of hydrogen.
Protium Deuterium Tritium
Symbol 1H1 2H1or D 3H1 or T
Protons 1 1 1
Neutrons 0 1 2
- The second examples are two isotopes of chlorine.
These are declare the 35Cl17 or Cl – 35 and 37Cl17 or Cl – 37
- The third examples are oxygen has three isotopes
16O8 Contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons
17O8 Contains 8 protons and 9 neutrons
18O8 Contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons
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Application of the isotopes – examples of isotopes.
- An isotope of uranium (U-235) is used in nuclear reactors to produce nuclear energy.
- An isotope of cobalt is used to treat patients with cancer.
- An isotope of iodine is used in the treatment of goiter.
- 14C6 is used in estimating the age of old and dead objects in archaeology.
The radioactive isotopes have wide applications in medicine, agriculture, industry and research. A radioactive isotope is added to a particular system and the course of the isotope is studied to understand the system.
(i) Medical applications:
In medicine field, radioactive isotopes are used both in diagnosis and therapy. Radio cobalt ( Co60) emitting `gamma` – rays is used in the treatment of cancer. Gamma rays destroy cancer cells to a greater extent.
Radio – sodium ( Na24) is used to detect the presence of blocks in blood vessels, to check the effective functioning of heart in pumping blood and maintaining circulation. Radio- iodine ( I131) is used in the detection of the nature of thyroid gland and also for treatment, Radio-iodine is also used to locate brain tumors.
Radio-iron (Fe59) is used to diagnose anemia. An anemic patient retains iron in the blood longer than normal patient.
Radio-phosphorus (P32) is used in the treatment of skin diseases.
(ii) Applications of radioactive isotopes in the field of Agriculture:
In agriculture , radioactive isotopes help to increase the crop yields. Radio-Phosphorous (P32) incorporated with phosphate fertilizer is added to the soil. The plant and soil are tested from time to time. Phosphorous is taken by the plant for its growth and radio-phosphorus is found to increase yield.
(iii) Applications of radioactive isotopes in the field of industry :
In Industry, the lubricating oil containing radio – isotopes are used to study the wear and tear of the machinery.
(iv) Applications of radioactive isotopes in the field of Molecular Biology :
In molecular biology radioactive isotopes are used in sterilizing pharmaceutical and surgical instruments.
(v) Applications of radioactive isotopes in the field of Radio-Carbon dating:
In the upper atmosphere, C14 is continually formed from N14 due to the bombardment by neutrons produced from cosmic rays.
7N14 + 0n1 à 6C14* + 1H1
The C14 is radioactive with half life of 5570 years.
The production and the decay of C14 are in equilibrium in atmosphere. The ratio of C14 and C12 atoms in atmosphere is 1:106. Hence, carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere contains a small portion of C14.
Living things take C14 from food and air. However with death, the intake of C14 stops , and the C14 that is already present begins to decay. Hence the amount of C14 in the sample will enable the calculation of time of death i.e the age of the specimen could be estimated. This is called radio-carbon dating. This method is employed in the dating of wooden implements, leather clothes; charcoal used in oil paintings, mummies and so on.
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